Classification of new functional ceramic materials

Classification of new functional ceramic materials

Classification of new functional ceramic materials

New functional ceramic materials are dielectric materials with electrical, magnetic, optical, acoustic, thermal, mechanical, chemical or biological functions. There are many kinds of functional ceramic materials with a wide range of uses, mainly including new ceramic materials with different functions such as ferroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric, pyroelectric, semiconductor, electro-optic and magnetic.

New functional ceramic materials are important basic materials in modern high-tech fields such as electronic information, integrated circuits, mobile communications, energy technology, and national defense and military industries. Functional ceramics and their new electronic components have important strategic significance for the development of the information industry and the enhancement of comprehensive national strength.

Insulating Ceramics

Insulating ceramics refer to ceramic materials used in electronic equipment as installation, fixation, support, protection, insulation, isolation and connection of various radio components and devices. Insulating ceramics are required to have high volume resistivity, low dielectric coefficient, low loss factor, high dielectric strength, corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties.

Insulating ceramics are widely used in circuit substrates, packaging, high-frequency insulating ceramics and other industries. The main devices are insulators, spark plugs, resistor base materials and integrated circuit substrates.

Semiconductor ceramics

Semiconductor ceramics refer to polycrystalline ceramic materials formed by ceramic technology. Different from polycrystalline semiconductors, semiconductor ceramics have a large number of grain boundaries, and the semiconducting of grains is completed during the sintering process, so they have rich material microstructure states and various process conditions, and are especially suitable for sensitive materials.

In addition to semiconductor grain boundary ceramic capacitors, the sensitive materials that have been used at present mainly include heat-sensitive materials, voltage-sensitive materials, photosensitive materials, gas-sensitive materials, and humidity-sensitive materials.

Dielectric ceramics

Dielectric ceramics, also known as dielectric ceramics, refer to functional ceramics that have the ability to polarize under the action of an electric field and can establish an electric field in the body for a long time. Dielectric ceramics have the characteristics of high insulation resistance, high withstand voltage, low dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, high mechanical strength and good chemical stability, and are mainly used in capacitors and microwave circuit components.

Dielectric ceramics include ceramic dielectric materials such as ferrodielectric ceramics, semiconductor dielectric ceramics, high-frequency dielectric ceramics, and microwave dielectric ceramics.

Piezoelectric Ceramics

Piezoelectric ceramics refers to the general term for ferroelectric ceramics which are polycrystals formed by sintering oxides(zirconia, lead oxide, titanium oxide, etc.) at high temperature and solid-phase reaction, and are subjected to DC high voltage polarization treatment to make them have piezoelectric effect.

It is a functional ceramic material that can convert mechanical energy and electrical energy into each other. Due to its good mechanical properties and stable piezoelectric properties, piezoelectric ceramics are an important force, heat, electricity and light sensitive functional materials. It has been widely used in sensors, ultrasonic transducers, micro-displacers and other electronic components.

Commonly used piezoelectric components include sensors, gas igniters, alarms, audio equipment, medical diagnostic equipment and communications. The usual piezoelectric material is PZT, and the new piezoelectric ceramic materials mainly include: high-sensitivity, high-stable piezoelectric ceramic materials, electrostrictive ceramic materials, pyroelectric ceramic materials, etc.

Piezoelectric Ceramics cutting —Ensoll—Diamond wire loop/Endless diamond wire saw

Magnetic ceramic material

Magnetic ceramics mainly refer to ferrite ceramics, which are composite oxides mainly composed of iron oxide and other iron or rare earth oxides. Ferrites are mostly semiconductors, the resistivity is much higher than that of general metal magnetic materials, and they have the advantage of small eddy current loss. They are widely used in high-frequency and microwave technology fields, such as radar technology, communication technology, space technology, and electronic computers.

Ferrite materials which for new energy trams cutting by diamond wire loop saw – Ensoll

High temperature superconducting ceramics

High-temperature superconducting ceramics refer to functional ceramic materials with higher superconducting temperature than metals. Since a major breakthrough was made in the research on superconducting ceramics in the 1980s, the research and application of high-temperature superconducting ceramic materials has attracted much attention.  At present, the application of high-temperature superconducting materials is developing towards high-current applications, electronic applications, and diamagnetism.

Nano functional ceramics

Nano functional ceramics are new functional ceramics with antibacterial, activation, adsorption, filtration and other functions used in air purification and water treatment. It has far-infrared release function, negative ion release function, photocatalytic antibacterial function, deodorization, adsorption, filtration function, and mineralization function.

Transparent functional ceramics

Transparent functional ceramic materials are optically transparent functional materials, which in addition to having all the basic properties of general ferroelectric ceramics, also have excellent electro-optical effects. The electronically controlled birefringence effect, the electronically controlled light scattering effect, the electronically controlled surface distortion effect, the electrostrictive effect, the pyroelectric effect, the photovoltaic effect and the photostrictive effect can be exhibited through the control of the components.

Transparent ceramics can be made into electro-optical, electro-mechanical, military and civilian devices for various purposes: optical switches for optical communication, optical attenuators, optical isolators, optical storage, displays, real-time display pagers, optical fiber docking , optical fiber fusion splicing and optical attenuators and other applications of micro-displacement drivers, light intensity sensors, optical drivers, etc.

With the rapid development of material science, various new properties and new applications of functional ceramic materials are constantly being recognized. Functional ceramics have been widely used in energy development, space technology, electronic technology, sensing technology, laser technology, optoelectronic technology, infrared technology , biotechnology, environmental science and other fields have been widely used. Functional ceramics are also developing towards high performance, high reliability, multi-function, miniaturization and integration.

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